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Organizations must obtain Ministry permission before publishing the results of opinion polls or field research.Criminal defamation laws have been used to silence critics of the Government.Throughout 20, a number of Egypt’s most prominent civil society leaders were banned from travel in connection with the case, and several had their personal and organizational assets frozen under court order. The case remains one of many instruments used by the state against members of Egypt’s civil society, illustrating a broad governmental campaign to restrict civic freedoms and control dissent.Registration is mandatory for all entities that practice “civil work,” defined in the law as non-profit activities that aim to achieve societal development.Informal (unregistered) associations and foundations are prohibited.Registration is by “notification,” but requires a burdensome submission of extensive documentation, and allows the Ministry broad discretion to reject the registration during a 60-day waiting period.Despite the highly restrictive nature of these laws, the civil society sector expanded during this time and was relatively large and vibrant when the 2011 Revolution began.In effect, the restrictive legal framework in Egypt did not serve to ban civil society outright but rather gave enormous discretionary powers to the Ministry of Social Solidarity and other government agencies.

In early 2016, the government announced that it had reopened that criminal action, Case Number 173/2011, this time focusing on Egyptian organizations that had received funding from outside Egypt.Introduction | At a Glance | Key Indicators | International Rankings Legal Snapshot | Legal Analysis | Reports | News and Additional Resources Last updated Updates: Egypt’s parliament preliminarily approved the cybercrime draft law on May 14, 2018.The draft “Anti-Cyber and Information Technology Crimes Law” primarily targets the illegal use of private data and other crimes that can take place online, but some of its provisions use broad terminology that could be used to penalize lawful online expression and shutter independent media outlets.For instance, Article 26 provides for at least six months’ imprisonment and a fine between 50,000-100,000 Egyptian pounds (,800-,600) for anyone who sends unsolicited emails that violate “family principles or values of Egyptian society.” Article 7 provides that the competent authority in charge of investigating cybercrime may close down Egyptian-based or foreign websites that “threaten national security” through the use of any digital content.More than 497 Egyptian websites have been blocked since May 2017, according to the Association for Freedom of Thought and Expression.

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